 97476 Luis GonzalezMestres
 Lorentz symmetry violation, vacuum and superluminal particles
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Sep 4, 97

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Abstract. If textbook Lorentz invariance is actually a property of the
equations describing a sector of the excitations of vacuum above some critical
distance scale, several sectors of matter with different critical speeds
in vacuum can coexist and an absolute rest frame (the vacuum rest frame)
may exist without contradicting the apparent Lorentz invariance felt by
"ordinary" particles (particles with critical speed in vacuum equal to $c$ ,
the speed of light). Sectorial Lorentz invariance, reflected by the fact that
all particles of a given dynamical sector have the same critical speed in
vacuum, will then be an expression of a fundamental sectorial symmetry
(e.g. preonic grand unification or extended supersymmetry) protecting a
parameter of the equations of motion. Furthermore, the sectorial Lorentz
symmetry may be only a lowenergy limit, in the same way as the relation
$\omega $ (frequency) = $c_s$ (speed of sound) $k$ (wave vector) holds for
lowenergy phonons in a crystal. We show that, in this context, phenomena
such as the absence of GreisenZatsepinKuzmin cutoff and the stability
of unstable particles at very high energy are basic properties of a wide
class of noncausal models where local Lorentz invariance is broken
introducing a fundamental length. Then, observable phenomena are produced
at the wavelength scale of the highestenergy cosmic rays or even below this
energy, but Lorentz symmetry violation remains invisible to standard lowenergy
tests. We discuss possible theoretical, phenomenological, experimental and
cosmological implications of this new approach to matter and spacetime, as
well as prospects for future developments.
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