95-32 G. Gallavotti, E.G.D. Cohen
Dynamical ensembles in stationary states (122K, TeX) Jan 28, 95
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Abstract. We propose as a generalization of an idea of Ruelle to describe turbulent fluid flow a chaotic hypothesis for reversible dissipative many particle systems in nonequilibrium stationary states in general. This implies an extension of the zeroth law of thermodynamics to non equilibrium states and it leads to the identification of a unique distribution $\m$ describing the asymptotic properties of the time evolution of the system for initial data randomly chosen with respect to a uniform distribution on phase space. For conservative systems in thermal equilibrium the chaotic hypothesis implies the ergodic hypothesis. We outline a procedure to obtain the distribution $\m$: it leads to a new unifying point of view for the phase space behavior of dissipative and conservative systems. The chaotic hypothesis is confirmed in a non trivial, parameter--free, way by a recent computer experiment on the entropy production fluctuations in a shearing fluid far from equilibrium. Similar applications to other models are proposed, in particular to a model for the Kolmogorov--Obuchov theory for turbulent flow.

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