 2153 Damon Wai Kwan So
 A Theory of Mass and Energy with Reference to Surfing Momentum
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Oct 16, 21

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Abstract. Based on a relativistic model for a quantum particle, the paper proposes a new definition of energy which takes into account the additional localised surfing motion of the particle on its phase surface which is perpendicular to its translational motion. The conventional relativistic formula for energy is found to be a limiting case for this new definition of energy when the characteristic parameter in the new energy formula is set to zero. For a particle at rest translationally, the two formulae yield the same energy, but in general for the same nonzero translational velocity they yield different energies, the difference being dependent on the value of the characteristic parameter. A certain kinetic energy range has been theoretically identified where the performances of the conventional formula and the new formula of energy can be best tested against experimental data. The new definition of energy prompts a definition of rest mass, m, which is the surfing momentum of the particle on its phase surface divided by c. The surfing energy of the particle is its surfing momentum multiplied by c. The surfing energy is therefore given by mc2 which has been conventionally understood as the rest energy. The theoretical analysis therefore shows from the new definition of energy how the link between surfing momentum and mass, and the link between surfing momentum and surfing energy (rest energy), lead to the well known relationship between rest mass and rest energy, without invoking electromagnetism. Surfing energy, though identical to rest energy, affords a more physically intuitive understanding than rest energy because it can be visualised. Surfing energy, validly understood as an internal kinetic energy of the particle, can be converted into other forms of energy including photon energy, which is accompanied by a reduction of the particle s rest mass due to a simultaneous reduction in its surfing momentum. The notion of conversion of matter or mass into energy is critically interrogated because of their fundamental difference in dimension. It may be better to speak of the conversion of internal surfing energy into other forms of energy. This has implications for our understanding of nuclear reaction, the processes known as annihilation and creation of particle pairs, and dark matter.
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