 2139 Damon Wai Kwan So
 Surfing Momentum, Mass, Energy and Dark Matter
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Jul 17, 21

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Abstract. The datasets by Bertozzi [9] and by Lund and Uggerh j [10] show that an electron with kinetic energy (normalised with respect to its rest energy) near to or greater than 2 is underestimated by Einstein s generalised formula for the energy of a moving object/particle. Also, the datasets show that the highest kinetic deficit in Einstein s formula occurs at the data point with the highest kinetic energy or highest speed. This energy deficit or anomaly becomes evident when energy is plotted again speed. It is not so evident vice versa, as is often the case; hence the anomaly was not identified. A new definition of energy incorporating the surfing momentum of a particle on its phase (S) surface is proposed. This new definition predicts or explains the observed energy deficit in Einstein s generalised formula and can further our understanding of the nature of rest mass, rest energy and massless particles. Using the criterion of least squares, it is shown that the new formula performs better than Einstein s formula in representing the relationship between kinetic energy and speed when data points with normalised kinetic energy near to or greater than 2 are included. It is suggested that more experimental data should be gathered to further compare the performances of Einstein s formula and the new formula. If the new formula for energy is validated by further experiments, this could shed some light on the puzzle of dark matter because a pair of supposedly annihilated particle and antiparticle can continue to exist together as a joint entity in a massless state with zero spin and zero charge, but with nonzero kinetic energy according to the new formula for energy (Einstein s formula will give zero kinetic energy for such a massless entity). These joint entities with nonzero kinetic energy could be dispersed in the vast space of a galaxy and could at least partially account for the elusive dark matter. According to the new formula, the energy released in such an annihilation is twice the rest energy of the particle, as is generally understood. The creation of a pair of particle and antiparticle can be understood as the reverse of the annihilation process. Because of such implications of the new formula, gathering further experimental data to compare the performances of the new formula and Einstein s formula is an important task. Also, the new formula, if validated, will add credibility to the relativistic model for quantum particles (expounded in [8]) on which the new formula is based. Finally, a nuanced understanding of rest mass and rest energy based on the new formula and its underlying relativistic model could have implications for our understanding of strong nuclear force.
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