- 20-94 Damon Wai Kwan So
- Nondeterministic Quantum Mechanics, the Two-Slit Experiment, Measurement, Wave- Particle Duality, Spin and Energy
Oct 30, 20
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Abstract. A previous paper  proposed an alternative interpretation of quantum mechanics which is distinct from the Copenhagen Interpretation and the pilot wave theory. This alternative interpretation and its associated non-deterministic surfing velocity component on the S (phase) surface are applied here to give an explanation of the one-slit experiment and the two-slit experiment in terms of the ontology of point-like entity (particle) and the function of wave field, without the need to invoke the notion of wave function collapse. The behaviour of the point-like entity is only partly influenced by the wave field so that there is a real degree of non-determinacy for the behaviour of the point-like entity. The path from the source of the point-like entity to the detecting screen of the one-slit experiment or the two-slit experiment cannot be pre-determined. Yet, a large collection of these paths will follow the probability pattern which is derived from the solution to the quantum mechanical equations with the slit boundary condition. Three modes of behaviour of the point-like entity in free space are identified the cylindrical mode, the spherical mode and the intermediate mode.
The point-like entity can either be a particle or a photon as the equations and their solutions for describing their behaviour are identical in form except that for the photon case the mass parameter is set to zero. Hence, the close similarity in behaviour between particles and photons is traced to the near identity of their relativistic equations. The particle nature of both particles and photons is thus affirmed while maintaining the influence (not determination) of the wave function on the particles and photons. In this way, the question of wave-particle duality is dealt with for particles and photons.
The absence of interference pattern when observation is made of the particles of the two-slit experiment can be explained by an exchange of momentum between a particle and the measuring element such that the two interacting intermediate modes before the momentum exchange reduce to the single cylindrical mode whose probability pattern is much more localised. Measurement is thus defined as an event where an exchange of momentum between the measured particle and the measuring agent takes place, leading to a wholesale and sudden change, but not collapse, of the wave function.
Louis de Broglie s formula for momentum and wavelength, and the Planck-Einstein relation, are also clearly evident from the analysis of the quantum mechanical equations.
The integration of the particle s angular momentum on the S surface yields the particle s spin. The notions of rest mass, rest energy and massless particles are investigated and unpacked with reference to the particle s surfing momentum on the S surface. A new definition of energy is proposed which could shed some light on the puzzle of dark matter. The crucial non-deterministic root in quantum mechanics is identified and Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle is critiqued. Finally, a possible relationship between a quantum-potential-like term and dark energy is posed.
Paper 4 - version 3 - 29 Oct 2020 eqn no.pdf.mm )