19-44 Fenfen Wang, Rafael de la Llave
Response solutions to quasi-periodically forced systems, even to possibly ill-posed PDEs, with strongly dissipation and any frequency vectors (820K, PDF) Jun 28, 19
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Abstract. We consider several models (including both multidimensional ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs), possibly ill-posed), subject to very strong damping and quasi-periodic external forcing. We study the existence of response solutions (i.e., quasi-periodic solutions with the same frequency as the forcing). Under some regularity assumptions on the nonlinearity and forcing, without any arithmetic condition on the forcing frequency $\omega$, we show that the response solutions indeed exist. Moreover, the solutions we obtained possess optimal regularity in $ arepsilon$ (where $ arepsilon$ is the inverse of the coefficients multiplying the damping) when we consider $ arepsilon$ in a domain that does not include the origin $ arepsilon=0$ but has the origin on its boundary. We get that the response solutions depend continuously on $ arepsilon$ when we consider $ arepsilon $ tends to $0$. However, in general, they may not be differentiable at $ arepsilon=0$. In this paper, we allow multidimensional systems and we do not require that the unperturbed equations under consideration are Hamiltonian. One advantage of the method in the present paper is that it gives results for analytic, finitely differentiable and low regularity forcing and nonlinearity, respectively. As a matter of fact, we do not even need that the forcing is continuous. Notably, we obtain results when the forcing is in $L^2$ space and the nonlinearity is just Lipschitz as well as in the case that the forcing is in $H^1$ space and the nonlinearity is $C^{1 + ext{Lip}}$. In the proof of our results, we reformulate the existence of response solutions as a fixed point problem in appropriate spaces of smooth functions. Based on the fixed point problem, we will obtain response solutions as well as some regularity with respect to the singular perturbation parameter $ arepsilon$ except at the origin $ arepsilon=0$. More precisely, in the analytic case, we use the contraction mapping principle to get response solutions analytic in $ arepsilon$ for $ arepsilon$ in a complex domain. In the highly differentiable case, to obtain optimal regularity in $ arepsilon$, we combine with the classical implicit function theorem. In the low regularity case, such as $H^1$, the contraction argument we use will be somewhat more sophisticated. Particularly, we do not use dynamical properties of the models, so the method applies even to ill-posed equations and we give some examples.

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