Michael Aizenman, Almut Burchard, Charles M. Newman, David B. Wilson
Scaling Limits for Minimal and Random Spanning Trees in Two Dimensions
(209K, LaTeX, 54 pages, 6 figures in EPSF.)
ABSTRACT. A general formulation is presented for continuum scaling limits of stochastic spanning trees.
A spanning tree is expressed in this limit
through a consistent collection of subtrees, which includes a
tree for every finite set of endpoints in $\R^d$.
Tightness of the distribution, as $\delta \to 0$,
is established for the following two-dimensional examples:
the uniformly random spanning tree on $\delta \Z^2$,
the minimal spanning tree on $\delta \Z^2$ (with random edge lengths), and the Euclidean
minimal spanning tree on a Poisson process of points in $\R^2$
with density $\delta^{-2}$.
In each case, sample trees are proven to have the
following properties, with probability one with respect to
any of the limiting measures:
i) there is a single route to infinity (as was known for
$\delta > 0$),
ii) the tree branches are given by curves which are regular
in the sense of H\"older continuity,
iii) the branches are also rough, in the
sense that their Hausdorff dimension exceeds one,
iv) there is a random dense subset of $\R^2$, of
dimension strictly between one and two, on the complement of which
(and only there) the spanning subtrees are unique with
continuous dependence on the endpoints, v)
branching occurs at countably many points in $\R^2$,
and vi) the branching numbers are uniformly bounded.
The results include tightness for the
loop erased random walk (LERW) in two dimensions.
The proofs proceed through the derivation of
scale-invariant power bounds on
the probabilities of repeated crossings of annuli.