Marzieh Baradaran and Pavel Exner
Cairo lattice with time-reversal non-invariant vertex couplings
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ABSTRACT. We analyze the spectrum of a periodic quantum graph of the Cairo lattice form. The used vertex coupling violates the time reversal invariance and its high-energy behavior depends on the vertex degree parity; in the considered example both odd and even parities are involved. The presence of the former implies that the spectrum is dominated by gaps. In addition, we discuss two modifications of the model in which this is not the case, the zero limit of the length parameter in the coupling, and the sign switch of the coupling matrix at the vertices of degree three; while different they both yield the same probability that a randomly chosen positive energy lies in the spectrum.