Marzieh Baradaran, Pavel Exner, and Milos Tater
Ring chains with vertex coupling of a preferred orientation
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ABSTRACT. We consider a family of Schr\"odinger operators supported by a periodic chain of loops connected either tightly or loosely through connecting links of the length $ll>0$ with the vertex coupling which is non-invariant with respect to the time reversal. The spectral behavior of the model illustrates that the high-energy behavior of such vertices is determined by the vertex parity. The positive spectrum of the tightly connected chain covers the entire halfline while the one of the loose chain is dominated by gaps. In addition, there is a negative spectrum consisting of an infinitely degenerate eigenvalue in the former case, and of one or two absolutely continuous bands in the latter. Furthermore, we discuss the limit $ll o 0$ and show that while the spectrum converges as a set to that of the tight chain, as it should in view of a result by Berkolaiko, Latushkin, and Sukhtaiev, this limit is rather non-uniform.