Kenneth Alexander, Marek Biskup, Lincoln Chayes
Colligative properties of solutions: I. Fixed concentrations
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ABSTRACT. Using the formalism of rigorous statistical mechanics, we study the phenomena of phase separation and freezing-point depression upon freezing of solutions. Specifically, we devise an Ising-based model of a solvent-solute system and show that, in the ensemble with a fixed amount of solute, a macroscopic phase separation occurs in an interval of values of the chemical potential of the solvent. The boundaries of the phase separation domain in the phase diagram are characterized and shown to asymptotically agree with the formulas used in heuristic analyses of freezing point depression. The limit of infinitesimal concentrations is described in a subsequent paper.